- Deriving 'Bending Active' Forms >>
- Iterating the One-Off - Designing with Virtual and Physical Computational Models >>
- Design Optimisation and Solution Space Generation Using Combined Association >>
- Computer Modeling as a Basis for Innovative Design Strategies >>
- Infralight / Ultrastructural >>
- Do Androids Dream in Electric Space? >>
- Between The Lines: The Space of People in Computing >>
- Digital Workflow in the Building Sector >>
- Technical Tessellations: Design and Prototyping of Multifunctional Folded Structures >>
- Biomimetic AI System for Agent-Based Construction >>
Deriving Bending Active
Sigrid M. Adriaenssens, Princeton University
In architectural design, geometry is often described using geometric computer-aided design algorithms and sometimes analytical expressions. In contrast, the shape of the Mannheim Multihalle (Mannheim, Germany 1974) and the ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion 2010 (Stuttgart, Germany 2010) derives from the large elastic deformation of flexible elements and is dictated by gravity and material behavior. Recently the word bending active structures was coined to describe these forms.
The trouble with analytical expressions for two-dimensional curves of least bending strain energy. Back in the 19th century the Swiss mathematician Leonard Euler already defined the equilibrium shape of a flexible rod (spline) when bent in two dimensions. Euler studied the buckled pinned strut over a large deflection range, seemingly the first non-linear treatment of elastic instability phenomena. A slender spline is capable of bending far beyond the critical Euler buckling load while remaining in stable equilibrium. When only a pair of balancing forces act at the ends of the initially straight member, the shape of this curve is an elastica. The elastica minimizes bending strain energy. The analytical solution to the shape of the 2D elastica problem, involves the solution of fundamental elliptic integrals and thus in its very nature does not provide a very useful design tool to generate shapes.
The limitations of three-dimensional physical models. The design of the gridshells for the Mannheim Multihalle inverts the geometry of a hanging chain model(in tension) and results in a pure compression shell. For active bending systems, this technique does not necessarily produce the shape as the bending effect of the splines is neglected. But it is a ‘good’ approximated shape. Computationally finding the shape of bending active splines. To relate form to material behavior, non-linear Finite Elements Methods (FEM) have been used that simulate the structural behavior of flexible splines. The simple spline algorithms we have developed, do not employ implicit solution methods like FEM but build on an explicit Dynamic Relaxation technique, initially developed for form-finding of pre-stressed systems. Using compelling case studies of single spline splines and configurations, we explain how our bending formulations generate equilibrium shapes that obey material and statics laws.
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Iterating the One-Off Designing with Virtual and Physical Computational Models
Jussi Ängeslevä, Universität der Künste Berlin
Digital media design is becoming increasingly relevant in creating physical spaces, where the digitality shifts from the software running in the screen to a computational design process that defines the physical aspects of the environment. These one-offs, whether in exhibitions or public space art commissions, are built with the mindset of highly iterative design process even if the resulting work exists as a unique instance.
This talk discusses the strategies and tool chains, combining digital and physical prototyping methods to reach an elegant solution for communication, testing and analysis, balancing feasibility, innovation and design in a single complex formula.
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Designing appears to combine two distinct ways of thinking. On the one hand designing is characterised by the relationships between different aspects of the design, and on the other hand designing often involves a process of iterative refinement.
The role of computational design tools is to provide ways in which the thoughts of the designer can be externalised and executed. In this context, we can see that these two aspects of design naturally map into two alternative computational paradigms. Relationships and the dependencies between items of the design can be represented visually by graph based associative applications, while iterative refinement can be represented by conventional imperative programming usually presented by text based notation in an IDE. Both approaches have important and complementary roles to play in augmenting the work of a designer.
This key lecture will describe how these two computational paradigms (Associative and Imperative) have been unified into a single domain-specific language and applied to design optimisation and solution space generation and illustrated this with a design example.
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Computer Modeling as a Basis for Innovative Design Strategies - Green & Sexy
Thomas Auer, Transsolar Stuttgart
In the western world building operation is responsible for about 40 to 50 % of the all energy consumption. The European Union revealed the EU carbon roadmap which states that over the next about 40 years carbon emissions from the entire building stock need to be reduced by 90 % - compared to 1990. This is a significant task, which requires an enormous level of innovation, especially since the target addresses the entire building stock. This also includes our built cultural heritage.
Given the timeline of about 40 years it is impossible to achieve this target based on trial and error. We still consider so-called eco-districts as lighthouse projects; however we need to get to the point where we balance entire cities such as Berlin and develop lighthouse strategies. Computer modeling is an essential approach to help reach the EU target.
The objective needs to be addressed on many levels. Building envelope strategies have to address performance as well as aesthetical requirements. Building systems need to be modeled in context of various envelope strategies. Supply systems – centralized as well as decentralized – have to consider loads, which might change over time due to the renovation of the building stock. On another level computer modeling must inform materiality and building shape of new buildings. Thermal and visual comfort as well as energy performance are mainly driven by those aspects.
In addition computer modeling has to be used to control micro climate in an urban environment. Extreme summer conditions will heat up cities to an extent which might cause a need for air conditioning in moderate climates or significantly increase the energy consumption of air conditioning in a hot climate. Various strategies can be used to control the micro climate in an urban environment. Computer modeling has to be used to assess these solutions.
In order to be successful, buildings as well as urban environments have to both be significantly more efficient and provide better environmental conditions. This requires an integrative as well as iterative design process where computer modeling is used to inform the design on various scales. At the same time tools need to be refined and/or a combination of tools connected to create an automatized process. However, a good result requires a good input into the tools. To this regard creativity as well as sophistication of the modeler is similarly important.
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INFRALIGHT / ULTRASTRUCTURAL
Frank Barkow, Barkow Leibinger Berlin
Demonstrates a commitment to material research and responses to advancing technology. In the end Barkow Leibinger are bricoleurs as much as they are engineers. The bricoleur, Claude Lévi-Strauss writes in a famous definition, treats 'a collection of oddments left over from human endeavors'; he or she 'makes do with ‘whatever is at hand’, that is to say with a set of tools and materials which is always finite and is also heterogeneous. ” Hal Foster
Both, digital and analogue fabrication methods are employed through research, exhibitions, and installations that ultimately find applications in their built work.
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Do Androids Dream in Electric Space?
Oliver Brock, TU Berlin
Robots must be able to obtain an understanding of the space that surrounds them. Some of the space is empty and robots should to move through this empty space towards a given goal. Other parts of space are occupied by objects, either to be avoided by the robot or, more interestingly, to be manipulated so as to achieve a task. In other words, the very point of a robot is to move through space and to manipulate things in it. An actionable understanding of space is therefore essential in robotics. In this presentation, I will review and compare some of the attempts to formalize and describe space developed by roboticists and cognitive scientists. Different formalizations will be judged by the degree to which they enable robotic motion competencies. I will try to convince you that space, time, action, and perception must be seen as a single, tightly integrated concept to endow robots with an actionable understanding of space.
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Between The Lines: The Space of People in Computing
Christian Derix, Aedas London
The Land-Use and Built Form group [LUBF] set up at Cambridge in 1967, set itself the mission to break the fixation of architectural design on arbitrary shapes. The group wanted to rationalize architecture by introducing computation as a medium to make design decisions explicit and therefore open to scrutiny. Some of their experiments became the first parametric models, showing how form can be generated flexibly by mathematical controlled constraints. This strand of their work became the main inheritance for computational design, leading paradoxically to the even more extreme expressions of architectural formalism, nowadays coined parametric design.
Designing this space where people’s experience takes place was not done through controlled overall systems as would occur with a Hadid building nowadays, but modular configurations of some opportunities that were assembled into larger spaces where people’s behaviour could not be anticipated any longer (such as Hertzberger), affording emergency of occupancy by providing a behavioural infrastructure.
The Computational Design Research group [CDR] at Aedas, founded in 2004, as a professional continuation of the work conducted at the Centre for Evolutionary Computing in Architecture [CECA] at University of East London between 1991 - 2009, is the only group that researches and develops space planning and design computation for architectural design in practice, with a special focus on qualities of space and occupancy. Some of the design simulation models are starting to resemble the approach and qualities that the organicists had in mind and thus, are starting to provide a new approach to architectural computation based on the space of people.
The talk will discuss and illustrate the spatial computation models of CDR and some of the academic projects conducted by its members.
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Often the already achieved digital workflow in the fields of automotive, aerospace or ship-building industry is quoted as an example for the building sector. But the organizational rules within the building sector are very different from other industries. These industries are all organized top down. Generally there is only one company starting with the concept for a new product. They continue with design, they are producing it, selling it and sometimes maintain throughout the whole life cycle.
In contradiction we in the building sector have different agents involved. First there is the client, who is typically commissioning architects and engineers for the design phase. After that they are seeking for a contractor, which not only has to give a price for the building but also has to guarantee its functions. By involving this construction firm the responsibility for the project is handed over and the design consultants normally stay on the side of the client to control quality. These completely different situation has to be reflected while talking about “the possibility of computational systems that bridge design phase and occupancy of buildings” (announcement for this conference).
Explaining this situation as a boundary condition this paper talks about the design and building of complex projects of different sizes including the “Sphere” for Deutsche Bank, Frankfurt (design Mario Bellini), the new premises for the European Central Bank, Frankfurt (arch. COOP Himmelb(l)au), the headquarter for KACST, King Abdallah Center for Sience and Technology, Riyadh (arch LAVA Nation) amongst other new projects.
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Technical Tessellations: Design and prototyping of multifunctional folded structures
Yves Klett, Universität Stuttgart
Folded structures are commonplace in everyday life, be it in newspapers, teabags or oil filters. But folding as a design method and manufacturing technology can be extended to a much wider span of possible applications. While for the last few thousand years, folding as technology has been a result of straight-forward experimental trial and error, the study of the underlying complex principles of the science of origami (ori kami – folding of paper) has gained a lot of attraction during the last decades, resulting in new methods for the design and simulation of folded structures.
In parallel, the search for new cellular materials for lightweight sandwich construction in the aerospace sector has shown that isometrically folded cellular structures or foldcores) show promise as a multifunctional alternative to state-of-the-art materials like honeycomb cores.
The innovative cellular foldcore material can be customized on many different levels. Complex and even freeform shapes can be produced in a near net fashion. The mechanical, thermal, acoustical and other properties can be tailored to specification. Additionally, a wide variety of base materials can be used in the isometric folding process, starting with cheap papers, cardboards and thermoplastics and moving up to metal foils and high-end fibre reinforced plastics using aramide or carbon fibres.
Apart from the originally static application as a sandwich core material, the analysis of the kinematic behavior during the folding process of the mostly rigidly foldable structures inspires new ideas and solutions for adaptable and actively actuated structures. In addition to new possibilities in the field of sandwich design, the gathered experience shows that the simple and elegant principle of folding has many yet unexplored technical and architectural applications, which can now can be explored more easily using the growing solid foundation of the science of technical origami.
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Julient Vincent & Rupert Soar
Biomimetics - the application of design concepts derived from biology - currently has no scientific basis. To achieve fusion, biology (open-ended, descriptive) has to be married to technology (closed-ended, quantitative); to achieve application the results of the fusion must be translated digitally taking into account the immediate context of the interrogating agent. Therefore the kernel of our system is an ontology of biomimetics that uses the design framework of TRIZ, a Russian system for solving technical problems, which is based in Hegelian philosophy. The transformations TRIZ recommends are founded on function and are therefore universal.
At the technical level, parametric CAD modelling, sometimes referred to as scripting (depending on what level interaction with code takes place), enables the manipulation of a ‘fundamental’ geometry (or set of geometric elements) by setting relationships as algorithms. Scripting tools resolve performance and extrinsic information, assigning these as algorithmic relationships. Scripting looks forward to the realisation of a physical structure and can look backwards to source data from searchable libraries and the biomimetic ontology. The ontology is interrogated via a contextualising interface that mediates resources, techniques and effectors. Hence the response to any problem will be related to the immediate circumstances which caused the problem.
The system will be functionally modelled on termites as an ideal analogue for agent architecture and the incremental resolution and production of biological structures. This will require us to learn more about how process integration (e.g. process element sharing) and materialisation takes place in nature.
Finally, since the AI kernel is based in biology, the output of our system will itself be compatible at the level of biology, and hence conform to requirements of sustainability.
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Your contact person
Prof. Dr. -Ing.
[KET] Fachgebiet für Konstruktives Entwerfen und Tragwerksplanung
Universität der Künste Berlin